張貼者: ChenYuYi 2010年1月3日 星期日



  • 資訊管理在美國與歐洲,主要名稱為Information Systems (IS)。
  • 美國於1968才由Minnesota大學雙子城校區創設第一個Management Information Systems Program (MIS),後來由於系統的應用愈來愈廣,而不限於 Management,便多使用綜合性的 IS名稱。
  • 近年許多新Programs不斷誕生,名稱非常多元化,其中則以 MSIS(管理科學與資訊系統),CIS(電腦資訊系統)為多。
  • IS獨立為研究領域之初,主要的始祖都是從行為研究、尤其是資訊系統導入(Adoption of IS) 著手。而美國IS 主要期刊 MISQ 的論文迄今均圍繞這個主軸,該刊近10年的Paper of the Year,仍全部與 Adoption 的行為研究有關(相關用字包括 Adoption, Implementation, Innovation, Cognitive-Affective…)。
臺灣50年來的教育政策側重培養理工人才,所以大部分的人才來自資工、資科,許多學校的資管甚至實為資工、資科第二系,老師們參加國際資工、資科學會的,甚至遠多於國際IS 學會。在這種環境下,形成了與國際頗不同,具有臺灣特色的資訊管理課程設計:
  • 資訊管理 ﹦資工、資科 + 3ㄐㄧ\:經濟、會計、統計
  • 資工、資科課程在比率上偏高;或是課程內涵偏向後端(演算),而非前端(使用者);或是同名課程,但內容設計偏向底(工具)層、而不是IS的頂(應用)層。
  • 而在資訊管理學門中,可能不少掌握國家資源的領導者,也認同這種臺灣特色。


從資訊教育的最資深者、長期領導者來看,還是ACM。而ACM 分別在1982 和2002 兩度經由調查研究和專家研討,制訂出核心課程。在1982 時,美國還沒有資管學會。而 IBM還是當時的資訊霸主,MIS的原始,更是IBM 提出來的商品概念(時稱MoIS),與許多學校合作,1982設定了10大核心課程分2類、再加4門:

Information Systems Technology類:
  • IS1 Computer Concepts and Software Systems
  • IS2 Program, Data, and File Structures
  • IS4 Database Management Systems
  • IS6 Data Communication Systems and Networks
  • IS7 Modeling and Decision Systems (graduate program only)
Information Systems Concepts in Organizations類:
  • IS3 Information Systems in Organizations
  • IS5 Information Analysis
  • IS8 Systems Design Process
  • IS9 Information Systems Policy (graduate program only)
  • IS10 Information Systems Projects
4 大相關核心課程:
  • X1 Research Survey
  • X2 Research Methods
  • X3 Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence
  • X4 Special Topics: on the leading edge of thinking in IS


2002年ACM 和終於成立的美國資管學會AIS合作,除了研究美國的大學外,更調查了國際的資管教育,制訂了新課程則是10門課+ 1門先修課(依其適用之學生分作3類)、再加上 5大知識領域:

All Students 類(亦即認為應屬共同課):
  • IS 2002.P0 Personal Productivity with IS Technology(這門定義為先修)
  • IS 2002.1 Fundamentals of Information Systems
IS Majors and Minors 類:
  • IS 2002.2 Electronic Business Strategy, Architecture and Design
  • IS 2002.4 Information Technology Hardware and Software
  • IS 2002.5 Programming, Data, File and Object Structures
  • IS 2002.7 Analysis and Logical Design
IS Majors 類 :
  • IS 2002.3 Information Systems Theory and Practice
  • IS 2002.6 Networks and Telecommunication
  • IS 2002.8 Physical Design and Implementation with a DBMS
  • IS 2002.9 Physical Design and Implementation in Emerging Environments
  • IS 2002.10 Project Management and Practice
5大相關知識領域 :
  • 行為研究方法與其應用
    Analytical and Critical Thinking
  • 企業基層知識
    Business Fundamentals
  • 人際、傳播、與群體行為
    Interpersonal, Communication, and Team Skills
  • 資訊科技
  • 資訊系統發展(或企業資訊化)
    Information Systems = Technology-Enabled Business Development


  • 重視人、組織、資料庫、網路、系統實作不變。
  • 工具課程,從 Computer 取向,更調整為 IS 取向。
  • 新增電子商務與培養產業「遠見、前瞻」能力的訓練。

2007年,一篇「Change Management in IT and MIS Education for Global Competition: Ten Sought-after Recommendations from The Industry Advisory Boards」發表於Issues in Information Systems,(Vol VIII, No 1-2),作者是L. Roger Yin。這篇文章對於本系未來再探討課程變革時應具有相當參考價值,在此整理其論述中的重要觀點。

首先,從它的結論談起:在2007年一份Forrester Research的研究報告中,提出「While IT and MIS jobs are victimized by the corporate trend of outsourcing and offshoring in North America, the illusion of having more new IT positions stay domestic may hardly happen.(IT與MIS工作外包趨勢,不必期待後續會有更多新型態的IT職務)」。在台灣也是有這樣的趨勢,企業資訊系統委外開發往往是由中國大陸或印度的程式人員實際負責設計撰寫,如果我們培育出來的資管人不具備足夠的專業能力就無法符合工作職場的需求。In response to the decline of enrolment in the IT and MIS programs, we educators must seek proactive way to stay competitive and sustain the strength of our programs.(辦教育的我們必須前瞻規劃更具有競爭力的課程設計) One feasible approach is to replace the view of the IT or MIS program as a conventional isolated entity in an ivory tower with that as an embedded, integral part of other larger systems in the global context.(不要再像以往獨自在象牙塔裡規劃課程,而是應該從大環境需求去思考一些整合) With the new approach being validated, we can naturally take advantage of the recommendations made by the industry advisory boards to help us strive and more clearly see the future need of IT and MIS education.(相關業界諮詢組織的觀點與建議將有助於我們發現更具有未來性的資管教育)

而究竟為何資管課程規劃出了問題?在這篇文章中一開始就介紹了:In many conventional IT or MIS curricula, streams of courses are sequentially ordered mostly based on difficulty levels of content rather than applied necessity of the industry.(多以難易程度做課程順序安排規劃而非考量業界的需求做規劃) In the past, a conventional way to establish a professional curriculum in an IT or MIS program is to place it as a discreet entity feeding and being fed by other associated entities, including the academic discipline, the university houses the program, and the business environment in the local or regional context.(傳統的資管課程規劃是自外於學校、科系、業界應做整合考量而未做的一個小圈圈)

作者提出的觀點則是:puts the IT and MIS program as both an integral part and intersection of other systems, including the IT field, the university setting, and the business environment that are all dynamically situated in a global context.(更宏觀看待學校、科系、業界的關係,更大範疇中的交集就是對資管專業的需求,也就能依此做課程規劃) Only after the recognition that an IT or MIS program is part of the industry, an industry advisory board can function as a co-dependent partner with the professional program in the evolving worldwide ecosystem of business and IT. (課程規劃為業界所需,與業界諮詢組織合作邁向新世界商業生態所需的資管專業)

How do we prepare our students to compete in the global IT and MIS job market?(如何才能將學生培育成具備整理競爭力的資管專業人才?),本文作者提出十項建議,這些建議是outlines a change management mindset for IT and MIS program faculty members to embrace recommendations from industry advisory board as if they were coming from difference perspective within the same system rather than considering them merely from the outside looking in.(要先改變心態,要擁抱業界諮詢組織的觀點建議,課程不應自外於業界做規劃,而應該尊重業界角度的觀點納入體系考量),reference points for IT and MIS programs who are searching for tools to proceed with accreditation requirements including self study, audit review, and assurance of learning assessment and other activities.(這些重點有助於資管課程規劃中做好研究、審查、確保學習價值)

Recommendation #1: Implementing an Industry Advisory Board If Not Yet In Place

The evolution of curriculum in any IT and MIS program is constant.(資管課程需要變革應該是種常態) However, the respective views of each group on what should and should not be in the curriculum at any point in time is likely to be mostly aligned but each might have a distinct point-of-view to share with and inform the other in a timely manner.

Recommendation #2: Department Restructuring & Merger

The primary consideration in making this recommendation is to both increase the potential for resources in the program while maintaining economic efficiency and the fit between the content of this program and existing programs in other areas.
The IT and MIS department should focus on applied business computing which represents the bulk of the current curriculum and is in keeping with the nature of the program.(資管課程應聚焦在應用商業運算) There might be a consideration to change the name in keeping with the norms elsewhere in either the discipline or the industry.(或可考慮改名)

Recommendation #3: Core IT and MIS Service Courses

The advisory board is often unable to ascertain if there was currently a “big picture” of what skills & abilities all the graduates will leave the institution with.(往往無法看出學校培育畢業生的技術能力之全貌) it would surprise the board members if the university did not generally want to ensure that all its graduates were IT and MIS literate.(可能令人訝異學校教育並未真的能讓畢業生具備足夠的資管素養) service course offerings often mean additional resources coming into the program and department which is always welcome.(將資源帶入系課程多開些實習課吧)

Recommendation #4: Adding Faculty Resources

At this stage of its development, the IT and MIS department needs both additional resources and new perspectives.

Recommendation #5: Encouraging Faculty Scholarly Activities

there is less likelihood of conducting scholarly research but at a minimum it would be helpful to see their interest in attending and getting engaged in the scholarly developments in the field of IT and MIS education.(讓老師更投入如何發展更好的資管教育)

Recommendation #6: Dropping Outdated Courses

if the subjects or skills no longer has practical needs in the industry, they should be eliminated to make room for more current and promising technological solutions.(不實用的課就刪掉吧)

Recommendation #7: Rationalization of Offerings

adoption rate and interest from the industry should nevertheless serve as key factors for curriculum decisions.(業界採用或有興趣的東西應該是納入課程之重要考量)

Recommendation #8: Recognize Academic Priorities

Being in the IT and MIS education business is more expensive than some other types of programs. Support needs will be different and generally more intense. And costs will be higher. It is important for senior academic administration to ensure that the acceptability of this situation is communicated to support departments.

Recommendation #9: Branding & Advertising Strategy

Every IT and MIS program has its potential, with restructuring and renewed vision, to be a “jewel” in the university crown. If the IT and MIS program moves quickly to implement the changes noted herein and to seize the momentum in terms of realigning itself to a BBA granting program with high level of flexibility for students to gain practical knowledge in integrating business and IT, it will give it first-mover advantage.(能快速因應變化的資管課程變革將佔有先驅者優勢)

Recommendation #10: Curriculum Standards & Accreditation

there are several potential accrediting bodies (e.g., AACSB, ABET) that provide useful guidance on model curricula and standards that can help with this assessment.

it may be most helpful to consider the recommendations on curriculum made jointly by Association for Information Systems (AIS), Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP) and Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) in the form of IS2002 (see http://www.is2002.org/) (註: 現在已經有IS2010課程規劃建議書了). This is a “model curriculum” developed by recognized experts in the IT/IS education field that many of the continent’s leading schools have adopted (some with modifications) in their own programs. Similarly, Organizational Systems Research Association (OSRA) provides another view of curriculum possibilities, focusing on nonprogramming articulation of applied business information technology training in its OEIS 2004 model curriculum (see http://www.osra.org/curriculum.html).

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